Hiding in plain sight

Brian Wuertz, Warren Wilson College

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How much do we really know about all the chemicals that we are exposed to every day? Do we even know when we come into contact with them? How much do we know about what is in homogenized milk, soda, stool softeners, baby formula, and personal care products such as eyeliner? The answer may be “not enough” for one compound found in all of those products, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, or DOSS. DOSS has recently been identified by my mentor, Dr. Spyropoulos and his Ph.D. student, Alexis Temkin, as a probable obesogen. Obesogens are a class of compounds that promote obesity by interfering with the body’s hormone signalling pathways related to energy use, fat cell regulation, and inflammation. These pathways are especially important in the developing fetus, where hormone signals influence development and may have long lasting effects on the health of the child after birth (Holder 2016).

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I am working on a High Performance Liquid Chromatography  (HPLC) system, in the early stages of developing a method to measure the amount of DOSS in cell extracts. (More to come in future posts!)

We are especially concerned with regards to the developing fetus and child because stool softeners containing DOSS are are commonly taken by pregnant women. Approximately 35% of over 20,000 women who gave birth at MUSC in recent years reported taking a stool softener containing DOSS during their pregnancy. I am working to help understand the biochemical pathways DOSS may follow to affect changes in the  developing fetus through a mother’s exposure to DOSS. I am also working on a method to measure the amount of DOSS in cells so that we can learn where in the body DOSS goes and how much of it there actually is.

You might be wondering how this fits into the theme of marine organism health at this point since all I have talked about is human health and a compound found in products we put in our bodies, DOSS. A red flag was raised about DOSS through research on COREXIT, one of the agents used to clean up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Over 40 million gallons of COREXIT was dumped into the ocean as a part of the cleanup effort and DOSS is one of the major components (Temkin 2016).  DOSS was flagged as a potential human health hazard because of the research done on marine environmental degradation. It amazes me how a perhaps seemingly unrelated topic can end up having human health implications. I am excited to keep working on this puzzle to learn more about DOSS and how it interacts with the systems in our bodies!

Funding for this REU program is generously provided by the National Science Foundation and hosted by the College of Charleston. Dr Demetri Spyropoulos at the Medical University of South Carolina is graciously hosting my research project and providing mentorship.

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Sources:

Holder, B., Jones, T., Sancho Shimizu, V., Rice, T.F., Donaldson, B., Bouqueau, M., Forbes, K., and Kampmann, B. (2016). Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal–Placental Messaging. Traffic 17, 168–178.
Temkin, A.M., Bowers, R.R., Magaletta, M.E., Holshouser, S., Maggi, A., Ciana, P., Guillette, L.J., Bowden, J.A., Kucklick, J.R., Baatz, J.E., et al. (2016). Effects of Crude Oil/Dispersant Mixture and Dispersant Components on PPARγ Activity in Vitro and in Vivo: Identification of Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate (DOSS; CAS #577-11-7) as a Probable Obesogen. Environ Health Perspect 124, 112–119.

 

 

 

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