Crikey! What’s in the Water?

Julianna Duran, Virginia Tech

1B7047D7-DD01-4D65-B081-9D809AC07271The Problem: South Africa is home to some of the most extraordinary wildlife and culture. This diverse ecotourism plays a major role in their economy and conservation efforts.

Crocodile

Nile Crocodile (Photo credit: Darren Poke)

The Olifants River System in the Mpumalanga Province is a large source of water that provides a habitat for several species. Over the last 30 years in this region, there have been dramatic declines of Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), fish, and waterfowl.

The cause of this is a disease called Pansteatitis. It is hypothesized that contaminants from coal mining and agriculture contributed to the emergence of the disease. Invasive species and the stagnant water may also be enhancing the intensity of its effects.

Pansteatitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the lipids, or fats, of an animal. The fats become tough which cause pain and a reduction in mobility that can make the species easier prey or unable to hunt for food.

Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) have been frequently diagnosed with pansteatitis and maintain a large population size. These characteristics make them a perfect model organism to use for researching pansteatitis – which is why they were selected for my project. I will be analyzing muscle tissue samples of these fish to compare the fatty acid profiles between healthy and diseased specimen; infected Nile Crocodile muscle will also be key in understanding how pansteatitis affects different organisms.

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Mozambique Tilapia – Photo taken from John Snow

It is important that we study Mozambique Tilapia to influence management efforts for top predators like Nile Crocodile, whose presence and actions impact the food web. In addition, tilapia and other fish are harvested and I want to ensure that any diseased fish caught are safe to eat. Although there have been no studies that have found whether or not this disease can directly affect humans, I hope that my study can give us an indication of the indirect human health risks.

Research Questions

  1. What is the difference in Fatty Acid Profiles between healthy and diseased Mozambique Tilapia?
  2. What is the difference between diseased Mozambique Tilapia and Nile Crocodile?
  3. What lipids are most affected by Pansteatitis?

This Summer, I will be investigating these questions and reporting back my findings. To find more information on the topics check out these links:

Blood Chemistry of Pansteatitis-Affected Tilapia

Life History of Mozambique Tilapia

Life History of Nile Crocodile


Supported by the Fort Johnson REU Program (NSF DBI-1757899), Dr. Mike Napolitano, Dr. John Bowden, The College of Charleston, NOAA, and NIST. 


References:

Bowden, J., Cantu, T., Chapman, R., Somerville, S., Guillette, M., Botha, H., Hoffman, A., Luus-Powell, W., Smit, W., Lebepe, J., Myburgh, J., Govender, D., Tucker, J., Boggs, A. and Guillette, L. (2016). Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). PLOS ONE, 11(4), p.e0153874.

Poke, D. 5 Interesting Facts About Nile Crocodiles. https://haydensanimalfacts.com/2015/03/04/5-interesting-facts-about-nile-crocodiles/ (accessed Jun 27, 2019).

Snow, J. Mozambique Tilapia. https://www.mexican-fish.com/mozambique-tilapia/ (accessed Jun 17, 2019).

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