Melanie Herrera, U. of Maryland, College Park
After 9 sampling days, 18 collections, and over 3000 fish, we’ve discovered fishes’ habitat preferences are much more complex than we thought. To recap, our hypothesis predicted fish would prefer dense sites of the invasive seaweed, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, over sites with more open water (thus, less Gracilaria). We also predicted that dense site would have greater diversity by attracting various types of fish due to its branches that conceal fish from predators.
Our belief that Gracilaria would fulfill the refuge effect, attracting more fish and more diverse species, was supported through the copious amounts of fish found in Gracilaria. Despite more abundance in the dense sites of Gracilaria, more diversity was shown in sparse sites (Figure 1). Among both the dense and sparse sites Atlantic Silversides and Bay Anchovies, Pipefish, and Striped Killifish were the most abundant and common species. While similar species occurred in both habitats, the sparse site had more occurrences of species that were considered rare in dense sites. For example, sparse sites had more occurrences of Spade fish and Florida Pompanos than dense sites. Additionally, sparse sites had species of fish such as leatherjackets and lizardfish that never occurred in dense sites.
Figure 1: Rank abundance patterns of fish in dense sites (represented by triangles) and sparse sites (represented by circles) of G. vermiculophylla at Grice Cove. The number of fishes were calculated as a logarithm as a measure of relative abundance of fish at each site. Species are ranked from most abundant (1) to least abundant (8-10). Slopes show differences in species evenness amongst sites. Steeper slopes exhibit less species evenness.
Supporting our hypothesis, dense sites did demonstrate more abundance. In total, 2944 fish were collected from the dense sites while 361 fish were caught in the sparse sites. It is predicted that smaller-bodied fish used Gracilaria more as a refuge because of their increased vulnerability to threats as small animals. Lack of abundance in sparse sites could be explained by increased exposure to predators and environmental threats.
Increased use of the dense sites shows Gracilaria does contribute towards housing all types of fish, most importantly economically important fishes. According to the National Marine Fisheries Service’s report on fisheries economic in 2011, the seafood industry alone brings in a minimum of $88 million dollars annually. In order to support this important industry, commercial fisheries can use our research to establish sustainable fisheries by understanding the various habitats that help rear economically important fishes. Our identification of the invasive seaweed’s role on housing fish can be used as a protective measure for these fish in future sustainable management.
Figure 2: Two of the top three most abundant species collected from dense sites of Gracilaria. (Left: Striped Kilifish; Right: Atlantic Silversides).
Thank you so much to my mentors Dr. Tony Harold and Mary Ann McBrayer for their advice and guidance. This research is funded through the National Science Foundation and College of Charleston’s Grice Marine Lab.