What’s living in the sand?

Jessie Lowry, Coker College


Visible microalgae seen on the surface of wet sand at Folly Beach.

Next time you go to the beach this summer, I want you to think about the sand that you are walking on. Did you know that there are tons of microscopic photosynthetic organisms, aka microalgae, that live on the surface of sand? Before this summer, I didn’t know about these organisms either. Here is a picture of visible microalgae on the surface of the sand. Look for this next time you’re at the beach!

Microalgae communities in sand are made up of single-celled eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria living in the top several millimeters of the sand (Miller et al., 1996). These organisms play important roles in ecosystem productivity and food chain dynamics, as well as in sediment properties, such as erodibility (Miller et al., 1996).


Dr. Craig Plante and Jessie Lowry collect samples of sediment from Folly Beach. Photo credit: Kristy Hill-Spanik.

I am studying these microalgal communities and what factors influence community structure. For example, does pH, salinity, nutrients, or grain size shape microalgal community structure? Or does geographic distance shape communities? To answer these questions, I am collecting samples from Kiawah Island, Folly Beach, Isle of Palms, and Pawley’s Island, SC. We are measuring environmental variables at each location, and using molecular tools to study microalgal community structure.

I am extracting the DNA from samples collected, amplifying specific regions from these samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then we will be getting these regions sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. We will then use QIIME to determine how similar these benthic microalgal communities are.


Jessie Lowry preparing samples for PCR, or polymerase chain reaction, which is used to make millions of copies of a piece of DNA.

Diatoms, a group of microalgae, have been proposed as bioindicators of environmental health (Desrosiers et al., 2013). Bioindicators are really cool because instead of telling a snapshot of an environmental condition, such as pH, temperature, or amount of oxygen in an environment, biological indicators reflect those changes and can give an idea of how the ecosystem is being affected. This research will further our knowledge of what factors shape benthic microalgal communities, and give a better understanding of these organisms as a potential bioindicator. In addition, this research will add to knowledge about the distribution of microorganisms, which is also not fully understood.

Learn more:




Desrosiers, C., Leflaive, J., Eulin, A., Ten-Hage, L. (2013). Bioindicators in marine waters: benthic diatoms as a tool to assess water quality from eutrophic to oligotrophic coastal ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 32, 25-34.

Miller, D.C., Geider, R.J., MacIntyre, H.L. Microphytobethos: The ecological role of the “Secret Garden” of unvegetated, shallow-water marine habitats. Estuaries, 19(2A): 186-212.


Thank you so much to my mentors Dr. Craig Plante, and Kristy Hill-Spanik. This research is funded through the National Science Foundation and College of Charleston’s Grice Marine Lab.


Even Phytoplankton Need Their Vitamins

Bryce Penta, University of Notre Dame


Phytoplankton: unlike dolphins and other large marine organisms, these little creatures do not catch the attention of most people. Producing almost 50% of the world’s oxygen, phytoplankton provide a unique research opportunity to learn more about bottom-up controls on the environment. Phytoplankton have long been understood as key factors in ecosystem mechanisms, but the details of their functions still remain poorly understood. After spending the previous summer studying freshwater phytoplankton, I wanted to switch to marine environments to understand more about these small organisms.

Figure 1. An example of the diversity of phytoplankton, all with various nutrient thresholds, especially in regard to vitamin B12. (Photo credit: Martin 2013)

My project aims to understand the effects of vitamin B12 limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency of the phytoplankton. Photosynthetic efficiency refers to the ability of the organism to funnel as much useable energy as possible into photosynthesis. Certain nutrients and trace elements in limited concentrations affect the ability of phytoplankton to photosynthesize by inhibiting key steps in the metabolic pathway. Vitamin B12, a possible limiting agent, can only be produced by microbes and recently the discovery of these organisms has exploded (New producer discovered, click here to find out more).  I will be altering the nutrient balance for my samples, subjecting them to higher or lower levels of B12 and nitrates. Until recently, most phytoplankton research has focused on inorganic compounds (nitrates, phosphates, etc.), disregarding the importance of biologically active compounds like B vitamins. Under stress of nutrient limitation, the phytoplankton no longer efficiently use the energy from photons and thus emit the energy as fluorescence. The hope of this project is to better understand the influence of vitamin B12 on both mixed phytoplankton samples and a single species culture.


Figure 2. A fluorometer used to measure the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton by taking the maximum fluorescence and the standard to get a ratio of efficiency.  (Photo credit: ACT Technologies Database)

Ultimately, the goal of this study is to elaborate on previous findings that implicate vitamin B12 in photosynthetic pathways. Few studies utilize B vitamins as a potential factor in phytoplankton systems. From this new understanding of the effect on photosynthetic efficiency, we can advise climate modelers to include or disregard vitamin B12 availability for their models as a potent limiting agent for phytoplankton.


This project is possible due to funding from the NSF College of Charleston Summer REU program and the Grice Marine Laboratory. Project ideation and collaboration with Dr. Peter Lee and the Di Tullio lab from the College of Charleston. Lab space and facilities provided by the Hollings Marine Laboratory.

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Panzeca, C., A.J., Tovar-Sanchez, Agusti, S., Reche, I., Duarte, C.M., Taylor, G.T., Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A. (2006) B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics. 596-597.

Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A., Gomez-Consarnau, L., Suffridge, C., Webb, E.A. (2014) The Role of B Vitamins in Marine Biogeochemistry. Annual Review of Marine Science. 6: 339-367.

Bertrand, E.M., Allen, A.E. (2012) Influence of vitamin B auxotrophy on nitrogen metabolism in eurkaryotic phytoplankton Frontiers in Microbiology 3: 1-16.

Martin, Claire. (2013) Vanishing Marine Algae Can Be Monitored From a Boat With Your Smartphone. Smithsonian. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/vanishing-marine-algae-can-be-monitored-from-a-boat-with-your-smartphone-2785190/?no-ist

“ACT Technologies Database -FLUOROMETER.” ACT Technologies Database -FLUOROMETER. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 June 2015.